Seismicity is induced in or around a producing reservoir through the creation of new fractures or deformations of pre existing fracture.
Monitoring of microseismicity or acoustic emissions and then processing these for location and source parameters defines fault networks and help investigate strains associated with production, water flooding or stimulation.
Historically, seismic monitoring of reservoirs has utilized geophones on the surface or shallow boreholes to monitor the relatively few events which reach the surface.
Positioning sensors close to or within the reservoir reduce the travel path and the associated attenuation of the high frequency components of the signals, which allows detection of the small miicroseisrnic events and results in relatively accurate source locations.
IPSS and PST passive seismic exploration disciplines observes and measures the natural or induced seismic activities occurring underground.
Explorations for hydrocarbon and geothermal purposes.
Long-term microseismic monitoring in hydrocarbon reservoirs has the potential to reveal fracture geometry.